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DE LA CONSTITUYENTE A LA ENMIENDA: EL CAMBIO POLÍTICO EN VENEZUELA (1999-2009)

DE LA CONSTITUYENTE A LA ENMIENDA: EL CAMBIO POLÍTICO EN VENEZUELA (1999-2009)

La convocatoria a un proceso de Enmienda Constitucional, recientemente hecho por el presidente de la república Hugo Chávez permite realizar una serie de consideraciones que se ubican tanto en el campo del Derecho Constitucional como de la Filosofía Política. Para el Derecho Constitucional, pues la Constitución aprobada en diciembre de 1999 se ubica en el denominado Nuevo Constitucionalismo Latinoamericano, que considera la necesidad de ampliar los espacios de participación política, así como asumir la Constitución como un cuerpo jurídico no estático, no perfecto, más bien lo entiende como una dinámica de ajuste institucional en donde los colectivos de derecho pueden participar y articular las respuestas o ajustes jurídicos necesarios. Este Nuevo Constitucionalismo se diferencia de los modelos clásicos en la forma y contenido de las Constituciones. La de Venezuela, Colombia, la propuesta en Bolivia y la aprobada en Ecuador, incorporan mecanismos de democracia directa como el referendo, en sus diversas modalidades; pero más allá de eso asumen o incorporan en su estructura artículos que permiten su modificación, por otra parte, también se diferencias por el hecho que sus articulados son menos generales y más específicos en el tratamiento del tema de los derechos sociales, políticos y económicos; aspecto este que se contrapone con el Constitucionalismo Clásico – bajo el cual se redactaron los cuerpos generales de leyes en Francia, Alemania y EEUU- que plantea una perspectiva más general de los derechos.
Esa diferencia no es fortuita ni casuística. Para el Constitucionalismo Clásico esa generalización facilita, impulsa y promueve un significativo proceso de explotación general del hombre por el hombre y más aun, sostiene un aparato hegemónico sobre el cual se construye y afianza la dominación. Por su parte, el Nuevo Constitucionalismo insiste en la necesidad de comprender que una cosa o momento ocurre cuando se propone una Asamblea Constituyente para generar una nueva constitución y que así mismo, en un lapso no necesariamente largo, pueden haber cambiado las condiciones históricas y políticas, por lo cual se hace necesario la modificación profunda (Asamblea Constituyente), parcial (Reforma) o específica (Enmienda) de algún aspecto jurídico.
Desde el punto de vista de la filosofía política, también la propuesta de Enmienda permite realizar otras consideraciones socio-políticas. En este sentido hay que considerar que se establece una discusión en torno a conceptos como estabilidad política, gobernabilidad y participación. Se discute sobre la estabilidad política, pues hay sectores que señalan – ubicados en el Constitucionalismo Clásico- que los ajustes constitucionales son procesos que “alteran” la paz pública y se traducen en reconocimientos tácitos. Se discute el tema de la gobernabilidad, pues se piensa que nuevas incorporaciones destinadas a ampliar los derechos, aumentan las demandas de los ciudadanos y con ello se incrementa la posibilidad del conflicto social. Se discute el tema de la participación, pues la enmienda – tal como se plantea- significa que la última etapa para su promulgación es ejercida por el propio ciudadano y con ello se incrementa los espacios de discusión. Sea como sea, en lo que respecta a la estabilidad y la gobernabilidad, las posiciones expresadas por los actores políticos reseñan actitudes sumamente conservadoras que están en contra vía con el planteamiento político del nuevo constitucionalismo.
No hay duda que el proceso de Enmienda se diferencia ostensiblemente del proceso de reforma. Lo propuesto en el año 2007 incorporaba modificaciones significativas en diversos aspectos del cuerpo jurídico aprobado en 1999 sin tocar los principios fundamentales que lo caracterizan. La Enmienda es muy específica, se trata de ampliar las posibilidades de participar en la elección de cargos de representación pública y de nuevo, se introduce una discusión en términos políticos muy importantes. En primer lugar, se discute el tema de la alternabilidad. En las visiones clásicas y conservadoras de la política, la alternabilidad es entendida como la posibilidad que se produzca la sustitución de un actor político por otro, con preferencias ideológicas diversas; en la filosofía política menos estática la alternabilidad es entendida como un proceso de competición abierto por la ocupación de un cargo de responsabilidad pública. Entre una y otra posición hay una gran distancia. En el caso de la definición primera, la alternabilidad es entendida como la sucesión de un grupo político por otro. En el caso de la segunda, la alternabilidad es entendida como una competencia electoral y política en torno a las preferencias del ciudadano para la ocupación de un cargo público. En definitiva la alternabilidad viene dada en la actualidad por las condiciones que aseguren que cualquier ciudadano u organización política pueda acceder a la aspiración de ocupar un cargo público. En ese sentido la Enmienda no modifica en nada el concepto de alternabilidad. De hecho se mantiene la figura del referendo que asegura la alternabilidad política.
Otro mito surgido en torno a la reforma es que la postulación sin restricciones de candidatos a un cargo público implica cerrar las posibilidades de sustitución generacional. Quienes así lo sostienen demuestran una ignorancia acerca de la realidad política del gobierno. Se sabe por cantidad de investigaciones realizadas por teóricos de la ciencia política como O Donell, Sartori, Bobbio, Pzworsky, entre otros que el ejercicio continuo del poder se traduce en un desgaste político significativo que deja abierta la sustitución en cuanto se produce una perdida en las preferencias del electorado por considerar que no han sido satisfechas sus demandas. Eso quedo demostrado en democracias parlamentarias como la española cuando Felipe González fue sustituido; o en Inglaterra cuando Margareth Tatchert fue sustituida o en Francia cuando Francois Mitterrand perdió la hegemonía que había ejercido. En todos estos casos surgieron fuerzas alternas a quienes ejercía el gobierno y que representaron una alternativa a la hegemonía política. Por ello, en el caso específico de la democracia venezolana sigue abierta la posibilidad de sustitución de quienes ejercen los cargos de representación pública pues el mecanismo del referendo revocatoria sigue siendo importante para el equilibrio político.
La enmienda ha servido asimismo para discutir acerca de la posibilidad de introducir innovaciones en los sistemas políticos presidenciales. No hay duda que la postulación sin límites es una característica de los sistemas políticos parlamentarios y que no hay sistemas presidenciales que lo incorporen, pero ello no se traduce en que no sea posible hacerlo. Precisamente esta enmienda introduce el tema del cambio institucional en los sistemas políticos como una urgencia del nuevo constitucionalismo. No hay que perder de vista que en la historia mundial se han presentado discusiones acerca del cambio político. No puedo dejar de señalar que cuando Thomas Hobbes habló en su obra El Leviathan de la construcción de un contrato social entre la sociedad civil y el gobernante fue considerado absurdo en el clima absolutista de ejercicio del poder que imperaba, igual ocurrió con el Contrato Social de Rousseau que planteaba la posibilidad de ejercer corresponsabilidad cívica. En resumidas cuentas el hecho que se plantea en un sistema presidencialista la no limitación en la postulación abre un espacio para que el accionar en torno al buen gobierno sea una matriz de opinión que marque la decisión electoral de cambio o permanencia. Ese hecho tendría un gran peso en la estructura de los sistemas políticos en Latinoamérica y sin duda, los sectores más conservadores entienden las implicaciones políticas que puede tener en un espacio como el nuestro donde prevalecen gobiernos de izquierda cercanos a los intereses y perspectivas de los colectivos sociales.
La enmienda se constituye por lo tanto en un espacio múltiple de creación. Múltiple pues amplía el campo de la participación política, múltiple pues introduce novedades en la estructura y funcionamiento de los sistemas políticos. Con ello se distancia de quienes asumen que el cambio político es peligroso para “la estabilidad política”. Quienes así se manifiestan lo que hacen en indicar su enorme preocupación por un incremento de la participación ciudadana. En este sentido, la campaña política de quienes están proponiendo la enmienda debe dejar de ser una propaganda política que no diga nada. Me refiero a que no debe cometerse el error que se asumió en la pasada campaña de noviembre que tomo como lema Vamos con Todo, ese eslogan no estableció ninguna diferencia ideológica con quienes se oponían a la propuesta del PSUV. En el caso actual es clave insistir en la ampliación de los derechos, en la no alteración de la alternabilidad y sobre todo en la incorporación y adaptación del nuevo constitucionalismo al proceso de cambio. Y para hacerlo hay que diferenciarse entre propaganda y comunicación política. La propaganda maneja los mismos elementos de marketing comercial que caracteriza al capitalismo mientras que la comunicación política debe estar estructurada sobre significados culturales de gran impacto que incentiven la participación. No puedo terminar estas consideraciones sin señalar que todo parece indicar que más tarde que temprano vamos a derivar en un nuevo proceso de Asamblea Nacional Constituyente (ANC) pues las dinámicas de cambio que se vienen generando en Venezuela son de tal magnitud que en muchos casos los articulados de la Constitución de 1999 no alcanzan la magnitud de las expectativas y necesidades de los colectivos sociales. En ese sentido, en un momento determinado – dado el dinamismo de la democracia- terminaremos en una necesidad de adecuarnos al cambio y este proceso es solo una nueva etapa en ese camino.

Dr. Juan E. Romero
Historiador y Docente Universitario
Juane1208@gmail.com
10/01/2009

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PÁGINA PERSONAL DEL DR. JUAN EDUARDO ROMERO

DR. JUAN EDUARDO ROMERO (VENEZUELA)

Historiador, especialista en procesos políticos contemporáneos de América Latina. Docente e Investigador de la Universidad del Zulia en Venezuela. Profesor invitado en España, Francia, Italia, Colombia, Brasil, Nicaragua, Argentina, Ecuador, Cuba, México, Costa Rica. Investigador Nivel II del Programa de Promoción al Investigador (PPI) del Ministerio de Ciencias y Tecnología de Venezuela. Teléfonos (58) 261 7596253 (telfax oficina). (58) 4126543075 ( móvil). Correo electrónico: juane1208@gmail.com

Blogsfesores

La Doctrina de Seguridad de los EEUU y su impacto en Latinoamérica.


En Ubeda, España 2005

Programas Políticos e Historia en el siglo XIX venezolano

En Barcelona, España (2005)

En Barcelona, España (2005)

Foro sobre la reforma constitucional. IUTM Septiembre 2007

Las Operaciones en la Investigación Historiográfica

Simposio Venezuela después del 3 de diciembre 2007

Simposio Venezuela después del 3 de diciembre 2007

Datos personales

Mi foto
Maracaibo, Estado Zulia, Venezuela
Doctor en Historia Social y Política Contemporánea. Profesor de la Universidad del Zulia, Venezuela. Especialista en Historia Contemporánea de América Latina. DEA en Gerencia Política y Gobernabilidad. Autor de más de 35 artículos sobre procesos políticos. Co-autor de seis Textos sobre Proceso Socio-político en Venezuela. Teléfono Telfax (58) 261 7596253, móvil (58)4126543075. E-mail: juane1208@gmail.com

En la frontera con Colombia (Guajira venezolana)

En la frontera con Colombia (Guajira venezolana)

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Foro sobre la Reforma Constitucional (IUTM octubre 2007)

Foro sobre la Reforma Constitucional (IUTM octubre 2007)

Sistema Político. Comportamiento Político y participación

Actividad de Campo en urumaco (Edo. Falcón)

Actividad de Campo en urumaco (Edo. Falcón)
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Foro sobre la reforma en el IUTM (Maracaibo) Octubre 2007

Historiografía. Clase Nº 1

En el Cerro Niquitao (Trujillo 2007)

En el Cerro Niquitao (Trujillo 2007)

En Castilletes (Frontera con Colombia)

En Castilletes (Frontera con Colombia)
Foto desde el Hito Nº 1 con el Profesor Wualter Velez de la Universidad del Zulia. Castilletes